Many educational uses of copyright-protected materials are covered by fair use. There are no definite rules about when fair use overrides copyright laws. Each claim for fair use should be considered individually based on these four factors:
These resource can help you think through if fair use applies to your particularly case:
Instructions for creating durable links to electronic materials
URLs that show in the address bar of your browser are not necessarily permanent links (a.k.a. durable URLs). Most vendors use dynamically-generated links via scripts that run within a search session, so that the link you see will change each time you run a search. Most databases provide some sort of permalink capability, although it is not always readily apparent how to obtain a permalink. Often you can use the email functionality to obtain a permalink. The most common standard for permalinks is "DOI". Even if a vendor does not provide a utility for creating a permalink, it is preferable to use the DOI number when creating the permalink. Paste the DOI number to the end of the prefix http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx
Optional: If you include the proxy prefix ( https://login.wake.idm.oclc.org/login?url= ) the link should work off-campus as well.
Paste the actual DOI at the end of the prefix.
If there is no DOI, just use the proxy prefix paste the URL of the PDF or HTML at the end of the prefix.
Fair use may cover photocopying or digitizing materials for yourself and your students in the context of in-person or distance instruction.
The U.S. Copyright Office gives some additional guidance about photocopying copyrighted materials in the “Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians” Circular 21. The guidelines allow you as a faculty member or instructor in a not-for-profit educational institution to make a single copy of a book chapter, journal, or newspaper article, short essay, story or poem, or a chart, graph, diagram, drawing or picture from a work. The single copy is to be used by you for your research, use in teaching, or preparation for teaching a class. If you need to make multiple copies for your class, consider the following guidelines:
The Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act of 2002 provides additional rights to address the need to use copyrighted materials in distance education courses. This act allows instructors to digitally share materials that would reasonably be shared in a normal class setting.
It also allows analog versions (paper, film, and video) to be converted to digital formats IF:
For shared materials, the follow criteria must be met:
The following resources can help you better understand the TEACH Act and your rights to reproduce copyrighted materials as an instructor:
Carpenter Library Subscribed Resources - The Carpenter Library has access to materials which contain many images. These resources are licensed by the Library and (unless otherwise stated) make their images available to our users fro education and personal use.
Online Image Libraries – Most of these resources are “free to use” for educational purposes, but always check specific limitation of each.
Search Engines - The following search engines have image search features.
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