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Research Metrics: Article-level Metrics

Citation Counts

Google Scholar 

  • Includes multi-disciplinary journal articles, conference proceedings, and books. 

  • Search for a particular work, then click on Cited by (number)

Web of Science

  • Includes journal articles (in Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Index databases),

  • Use Cited Reference Search to see how many times a particular work or author has been cited.

  • Or, search for a particular work, then click on the number that follows Times Cited

  • Create a Citation Alert to be notified of when a particular work is cited.


  • Includes journal articles in medicine, science, some social sciences, and some humanities. 

  • Search for a particular article, then click on Citing Articles (number)

SciFinder (First-time users must register)

  • Includes journal articles, conference proceedings, and books in chemistry and related sciences. 

  • Search for a particular topic or author. Select the desired topic/author, then click Get References. Select a particular title, then click Get Citing.


  • Includes journal articles, conference proceedings, and books in mathematics. 

  • Use the Citations tab to search for a particular author. The search will result in a list of publications, ranked by number of citations. 

  • Or, use the Publications tab to search for a particular article and see how many times it has been cited.

CiteSeerX Beta 

  • Includes journal articles in computer and information science. 

  • Search for a particular work or author. Select the desired work, then click on the number following Citations. Also see Years of Citing Articles at the right-hand side of the page to see citations across time. 

Citation Benchmarking

What is citation benchmarking? A paper's citation count won't tell you the whole story by itself. When was the paper published? What type of document is it? How frequently does work in that field typically get cited? Normalization puts citation counts in context. Normalized indicators show you how a paper or group of papers performs relative to averages or baselines. 


Some tools for citation benchmarking

  • RCR (Article's Relative Citation Ratio from iCite) iCite provides analysis for articles appearing in PubMed.  Citation data are drawn from several data sources: PubMed Central, European PubMed Central, CrossRef, and Web of Science.  iCite includes the Relative Citation Ratio (RCR) for an article that is a citation-based metric developed by NIH. 
  • CiteScore (Article's Citation Count vs Journal's CiteScore​)CiteScore is a brand new (December 2016) product from Elsevier, using citation data from the Scopus database to rank journals.  In this metric you compare an article's citation count to what CiteScore says would be expected of the average article in this journal. This tool is free from Scopus.
  • FWCI (Article's Field-Weighted Citation Impact Score from Scopus)The Field-Weighted Citation Impact (FWCI) score comes from the Scopus database and shows how the article's citation count compares to similar articles in the same field and timeframe.  (This Scopus feature is not available in the Carpenter Library at this time.)

Further Reading

Mike Lauer Measuring Impact of NIH-supported Publications with a New Metric: the Relative Citation Ratio. Extramural Nexus. Sept. 2016.

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